Top >Development and Evaluation of Cancer Prevention Strategies in Japan >Glossary >Glossary

Development and Evaluation of Cancer Prevention Strategies in Japan



Adenocarcinoma (Lung cancer)

A cancer that resembles in shape and characters with glandular cells that function as secretion and absorption, and often develops in the peripheral portion of the lungs. People, other than smokers, are also prone to this cancer.

Almost statistically significant

The association observed in the study was determined to have occurred in coincidence, but if there were more study subjects, the result could have been statistically significant.


Case-control study

A case-control study is a study in which surveys on factors including past lifestyle habits, environment, etc., are conducted between a group of patients with a certain disease and a gender and a gender and age-matched control group without the disease, and risk of disease incidence is analyzed statistically. This is a retrospective study, a type of study that investigates past risk factors in people with the disease, and the scientific reliability is less than that of a prospective cohort study.

Cohort study

A cohort study is a study in which surveys on various factors including lifestyle, environment, etc., are conducted in a group that meets certain criteria such as the region and age, etc., and relationship with the health status of the participants that have been followed up for a long period of time is analyzed statistically. The type of study that follows up individuals on their health status, with risk factors having been investigated first, is called a prospective cohort study.


The colon is the part of the intestine from below the cecum to above rectum. The colon is divided into 4 parts: the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon.


Dose-response relationship

The increase or decrease in the risk of developing a disease, proportionate to the exposure to the investigated environmental factor (such as smoking).


Hepatitis B virus/ hepatitis C virus

Infection of both viruses is transmitted through blood. Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus or infection during infancy develops into a condition of persistent infection. Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus is said to be rare, but the condition of persistent infection can occur even by infection through blood transfusion, etc. in an adult. Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B can be prevented by administrating vaccine and immunoglobulin to the child born from the infected mother, and there are almost no new cases of infection with hepatitis C virus due to blood tests prior to blood transfusion.


One of several types of cancer that develops in the liver (hepatoma, cholangioma, congenital hepatoma, etc.) 90% or more of liver cancer in adults belongs to this type.


Japanese sake 2.9 'go' (1 go = 180 ml) / Converted amount in ethanol 30g / Converted amount in ethanol 40g and above

One 'go' of Japanese sake (180 ml) is approximately 23g in ethanol, and is nearly equal to 0.6 'go' of shochu (25%), 0.5 'go' of awamori (30%), one large bottle of beer (633 ml), 2 glasses (1 glass = 100 ml) of wine, a double whiskey (60 ml).



A study method to obtain scientifically highly credible results, by organizing multiple study results of above a set level published on a certain subject, derives an overall result statistically.


Persistent infection with hepatitis virus

A condition where hepatitis virus is not eliminated as transient virus, and continues to live in the liver, and an infectious condition lasts for a long period of time. If a condition of persistent infection with Hepatitis B or C virus is left untreated, it may lead to chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis, then to liver cancer.

Pooled analysis

A study method to obtain scientifically highly credible results, by adding together multiple study results of above a set level published on a certain subject to increase the study subjects, and derives an overall result statistically.


Quantitative evaluation

A more specific evaluation that indicates not only the presence/absence of risk (qualitative), but the degree in numbers, as to how much the risk increases by a certain level of a risk factor.



The straight portion of the large intestine between below the sigmoid colon and anus.

Relative risk

Relative risk is a comparison of risk between multiple groups divided according to the amount of the risk factors, and by setting a control group with the risk of this group defined as 1, the risk of other groups is expressed in numbers. This indicates the risk level by the factor, but does not indicate the absolute risk (spontaneous frequencies).


Sigmoid colon

Sigmoid colon is a portion that curves into the shape of an S at the downstream of the colon, connecting to the rectum.

Smoking index

Smoking index is a parameter that reflects a cumulative number of cigarettes smoked. It is expressed as "number of cigarettes smoked x number of years" or "number of packs smoked x number of years (one pack = 20 cigarettes)".

Squamous cancer (lung cancer)

Cancer with similar shape and nature as squamous cells that protect the luminal surface, and develops in the thick trachea at the entrance of the lung or deep down in the lung. Occurs more often in smokers.

Statistically Significant

The association observed in the study did not occur by coincidence. The probability of occurrence without correlation between both is less than 5% is defined to be "statistically significant".

Top Page